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Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected patients while HIV remains a key risk factor for development of active TB infection. Treatment integration is key to reducing mortality in patients with HIV-TB co-infection. However, this opportunity to improve outcomes of both infections is often missed or poorly implemented. This review discusses published literature on clinical trials and cohort studies of strategies for TB-HIV treatment integration aimed at reducing co-infection mortality. The data show that the survival benefit of AIDS therapy in patients infected with TB can be maximized among patients with advanced immunosuppression by starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) soon after TB treatment initiation. Addressing operational challenges in integrating TB-HIV care can significantly improve patient outcomes, generate substantial public health impact by decreasing morbidity and death in settings with a high burden of HIV and TB. The insights from this study can be useful for those implementing TB and HIV treatment programs. Click here to read the review.